The experts in the software industry need to be in full control of the web, Windows, mobile and enterprise applications. Bilge Adam Academy,s Software Expert (.NET) training has been developed with the aim of educating the professionals needed in the sector. With 300 hours of training, it is not just about writing programs; Database, web and mobile programming and service architecture.

Brochure Download Goals Getting Started

Our goal in Software Specialist (.NET) training can be summarized as teaching C # language and .NET 4.5 technology suitable for developing application on every platform, and enabling our students to build a strong software infrastructure.

In this program, which we started from the beginning, we first transfer to our students theoretical explanations and practical applications of what the concept of software is and how to approach the concept of software independently of C # language, and help them quickly adapt to the new world they meet.

As Wise Adam Academy, there are dozens of reasons for choosing C # in dozens of programming languages; It is easy to learn, easy to work with the .NET Framework, desktop, web and mobile applications. But the most important reason is undoubtedly a fully compatible language for Object Oriented Programming. Today, the volume of software is growing day by day, the number of developers is constantly increasing. During the application development process, the hierarchy and order between the team members has become an important issue. Object Oriented Programming is an important point of view to remove this kind of troubles from the middle. We, in our education, have to take the discipline of application development from this point of view and put forward the necessary studies to increase their experience and knowledge level in this subject.


At the beginning of an application,s auxiliary elements, the database stores the data stored in the system. Now the development of written applications without a database has become unthinkable. In our training, we teach the database concept, management and programming with Microsoft SQL Server 2014, which is one of the world,s most powerful relational database servers.

Web Programming

Today, we see that software technologies are advancing rapidly in the ,Web, and ,Mobile, worlds. The widespread use of the internet, the opportunity to access developed applications from anywhere, and the effortlessness of updates made it possible for the web world to evolve rapidly. Moreover, the mobile movement that started with laptop computers first reached to the highest point today with the introduction of smartphones and our life became one of the basic elements that shaped the future. As a result, we could not ignore these topics in our training program as Bilge Adam Academy.

The Web Programming topic in our training content is handled under the titles of MVC technology (MVC 4), which Microsoft has significantly reduced the development time of the code for software developers, the Web Forms technologies that have brought many conveniences, Most of the ASP.NET applications in the market have been developed using Web Forms technologies. However, the concept of MVC has become an important template for Internet applications and has become one of the technologies that Microsoft is attaching importance to its development. Therefore, both yesterday and today, as well as the future, are in our curriculum to be transferred to our students with detailed applications.

Mobile Programming: Windows Phone 8

As mentioned above, the other issue that we can not ignore is the Mobilite ... We are facing new developments every day from mobile internet access to mobile programming on smart phones. Microsoft,s acquisition of Nokia from the world,s largest phone makers and its investments in the smartphone market have made Windows Market an important application marketplace with 500 applications per day.

As a result of these developments, we provide our students with the world,s # 1 operating system to teach them how to develop applications for Windows Phone 8 on Windows Phone 8 and how to install the developed applications on the market.

Service Architecture

The need to exchange data with each other, especially on mobile devices, running on different platforms, is constantly increasing. This need reveals new quests and solutions in software. At the beginning of these solutions ie Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) comes. Thanks to the Service Oriented Architecture, programs developed independently of each other, even written in completely different programming languages, can work together harmoniously. WCF (Windows Communication Foundation) is the technology that Microsoft has introduced to develop applications in Service Oriented Architecture and that comes with .NET 3.0. Platform.

Thanks to WCF which is an rm-independent structure, the application in any operating system has become operable in every environment. We see this technology, which greatly reduces the burden of a software developer writing code for the creation of a service, by practicing thoroughly in our training, and how to communicate between different platforms and applications. We also work with Windows Azure, Azure Hosting Services, and Deployment Services, one of the most important services that Windows brings out to Cloud Computing, with the promise and future of cloud computing. Database Management Specialists; Disaster recovery and security policies with the improvement of performance and ensuring that the database infrastructure of the information systems is designed, set up, managed, operating in high continuity and performance improvement. Basic Requirements: • Being a citizen of the Republic of Turkey, • Not fulfilling the age of 34, Graduation from any of the undergraduate programs in Computer Engineering, Computer and Software Engineering, Software Engineering, Electronics Engineering, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Electronics and Communication Engineering, Information Systems Engineering, Control and Computer Engineering, Computer Science Engineering or Computer and Informatics Engineering •

Examination results are in English, in the last five years; To have a score of 70 or above in YDS / KPDS / ÜDS or to answer at least 42 questions correctly in the foreign language section of KPSS or to have the exam result accepted by ÖSYM at 70 or above in YDS / KPDS / ÜDS, • To be able to follow the technology and innovations, to be able to have communication skills and teamwork, to have analytical thinking structure and to work with solutions, to be able to adapt to intensive work tempo and to have the right ability to make decisions under stress, • To avoid being a member of MIT Undersecretariat (In this respect, the legislation and apprenticeship of the MIT Undersecretariat is the essence) .Participant Qualifications: • Management, setup, patch application and version upgrade, backup and recovery, performance improvement of Oracle / MySQL / MS SQL server databases, Data warehouse, disaster recovery, having at least one of the best knowledge and / or experience. * All countries surveyed include OECD, BRICS countries and Singapore. All average rates except for Hong Kong, Brazil, India, Russia, South Africa, New Zealand and Singapore are based on OECD data and reflect 2011 data. Rates in the first countries are calculated on the basis of the US dollar-based purchasing power parity, which is included in a report of the International Labor Organization ILO in its 2012 report. This data belongs to 2009. The purchasing power parity figures for per capita GDP are taken from the World Bank database and are for 2011. Economists use an exchange rate that is specially adapted to meet living standards in different countries. The figures used here are also given as purchasing power parity in US dollars. The 1 dollar calculated in this way is equivalent to the 1 dollar spent in the United States. However, the purchasing power of a US dollar changes from country to country. About the Basics Pamukkale University Central Library Electronic Resources Pamukkale University Central Library has a total of 81 online databases including 62 electronic magazines, 11 electronic books, 8 books and index And covers all aspects of the university,s education in terms of subject matter. Each science branch can be accessed in full text, including its own abstract databases. The University,s Most Comprehensive, Academic Full-Text Database for Research Academic FullMicro-Disciplinary Research is the leading database of science, technology, engineering and many other intellectuals with the most precious and full-text magazines as far as social and human sciences.American Doctoral Dissertations, 1933-1955 American Doctoral Dissertations offers access to nearly 100,000 doctoral dissertations accepted by American universities between 1933 and 1955. The printed index is called ,Doctoral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities,. Applied Science & Business Periodicals Retrospective Retro Index is one of the basic indexes in the life sciences and economics administrative sciences which index more than 2,000 publications published in 1913-1983 period. About 4.5 million records are available. Ararakx Arastirmax is a collection of scholars, researchers, writers, academics, teachers, employees, statesmen, citizens, students and librarians, archivists, documentation specialists.

It is one of Turkey,s first full-text scientific database platforms established to provide free access to electronic information in a timely, current, reliable, fast, complete manner. The article is an interdisciplinary database listing the bibliographic information on the pages of the journals in FirstOCLC. He has published nearly 16 million articles in the fields of science, technology, medicine, economics, social sciences and humanities since 1990. He has published nearly 27 million articles about art history, architecture, music, religion, anthropology, geometry, economics, studio art, politics, Offers more than 1.4 million visual accesses on world history, American culture, Asian culture, Classical Studies, Language Education, Latin American Culture, Medieval Studies, Renaissance Studies, Women,s Studies. The ASOS Index is a regular To search for ,fictitious, journals which are being published in print or electronically, and to provide professional indexing service at the national level in the field of social sciences. Magazines seeking to be indexed should be published in accordance with the ,ongoing publication criteria, listed on the ASOS Index at the Referral link.BMJ Online Journals Clinical areas of expertise provide access to magazines in public health and blood-based type areas. Full text access is available from April 20, 2007 to April 19, 2009, for which the License Agreement is valid. It includes 27 journals from British Medical Journals published between 2007 and 2009. BiOneBioOne Complete is a platform for online collection of 191 journals published in biology, ecology and environmental science. Many topics of vital importance today; Is an important resource for students, faculty and researchers thanks to their content such as climate change, ecological and biodiversity conservation and natural resource management. Britannica Academic Encyclopedia Britannica, Interactive World Atlas, Personalized Workspace, Videolar, Multimedia-Timeline and many more Britannica You can quote from Academic without a copyright issue. (Business Permission) Business Source Complete Complete and Textual Content of the World,s Most Comprehensive and Reflective Full Text Content Business Source Complete outperforms all databases produced in the field of economic and administrative sciences thanks to its fanciful and exclusive content. CAMIOOnline is a catalog database containing pictures of art museums. Clase PerodicaLatin is the index of American science and humanities science journals. Clinical KeyTM covers medical and surgical specialty areas. (More than 500)

All Elsevier medical and surgical reference books (more than 900) All Medical and Surgical Clinics of North America MagazinesTumier First Consult Point-of-Care clinical monographs (800+) All Procedures Consult content and related videos All Elsevier medical and surgical procedure videos (more than 9,000) All Clinical Pharmacology drug monographs (2,800+) All Elsevier linked and supporting images and videosTimeline Clinical Experiments - all clinical trials from the database MEDLINE content - Complete indexed Medline summariesApplication Guidelines - 2,000+ practice guidesHospital Training Materials - 15,000+ Patient Training MaterialsMultimedia - 13,000+ medical and surgical video content and over 5 million imagesClinical Skills (Mosby,s Nursing Skills) An online handbook by Elsevier on nursing skills and procedures The reference source, Mosby,s Nursing Skills database, is designed to meet the needs of today,s nurses. The Mosby,s Nursing Skills database, accessible 24 hours a day from any computer, contains information on more than 450 clinical and practical nursing skills from reputable reference sources. Some of these resources are: Clinical Nursing Skills & Techniques, 6th edition (Perry & Potter) Nursing Procedures 3rd edition (Proehl), AACN Procedure Manual for Critical Care 5th edition (AACN). The nursing skills information in the Mosby,s Nursing Skills database can be viewed in detail, or as a summary if desired. Thanks to interactive tests, users can measure how well they understand what they are examining. This database covers a wide range of subjects on nursing and can be customized according to the health institution,s own standards and policies. The Cochrane LibraryTM is a data base based on clinical texts on clinical research. There are more than 4,400 full-text Cochrane Reviews and Protocols. 2785 of them are full review, 1625 is protocol. Protocols are ongoing reviews. These can be accessed in HTML and PDF format.

All Reviews are regularly updated with recent evidence. DergiPark is a database providing full text access to the journals published by Universities in Turkey related to Health Sciences, Social Sciences and Humanities, Life Sciences, Law, Engineering and Basic Sciences. ,Clinical reference system, based on DynaMedKan (Ebscohost) is the world,s largest comprehensive multidisciplinary full text electronic book database. It is a fully academic, electronic book database of about 120,000 electronic books and is a true academic e-book database that researchers need with ease of use through the EBSCOhost platform. ECO 1995 is the daily publisher of science, technology, medicine, education, economics, anthropology, law Over 5000 books on librarianship, psychology, geography, fine arts, political and social sciences, linguistics, religion and agriculture provide bibliographic and full text access. There are more than 2,400,000 indexed records. Education Index Retrospective: 1929-1983 More than 835,000 records are indexed, detailing over 700 publications, many of which are sober. The information sought in the archival literature can be easily found with today,s key words thanks to updated topics. In addition, original topics have been preserved in terms of shedding light on old dates. Emerald (2006-2013) Emerald management e-journals database; It contains important journals in the fields of library, information services, management and management, as well as journals with specific topics in engineering, applied sciences and technology. ERICERIC® (The Education Resource Information Center) provides access to educational literature and resources. This database provides access to the journals in the Current Index of Journals in Education and the Resources in Education Index.European Views of the Americas: A comprehensive guide to printed records about America in Europe before 1493-17501750, Global Financial Data is a resource that archives, reports, and analyzes financial data. It is a database that provides daily bibliographic information on documents, congress reports, interviews, negotiations and official documents published by the US Government Printing Office from GPO1976. GreenFILE GreenFILE, a multidisciplinary database on the Korean language, draws attention to links between the environment and various disciplines such as agriculture, education, law and technology. Some of the topics covered include; Global warming, climate change, pollution, afforestation, agriculture, renewable energy and recycling.HiperkitapHiperkitap full text e-book database; Astronomy and space, chemistry, physics, mathematics and statistics, energy, law, psychology, fine arts, librarianship, media and communication, computer, environmental science, literature, education, economics and finance, business and management, music, politics and international relations , Cultural studies, engineering, sociology, history, agriculture, medicine, sports, travel and tourism. Simple and detailed search options are an online library with many features such as searching in full text, taking notes, showing automatic bibliographies, coping with copyrighted content, copying related fields, and creating users, own e-libraries. Most of the books are downloadable, IEEE / IEEE (IEL) Electrical and electronics engineering, information technology, computer, biomedical engineering, physics, etc. Gives full text access to the topics.

IHS Standards Expert -

EuroSource provides information on all aspects of European standards, including all conference proceedings from around 1988 (approximately 880,000), to all current IEEE Standards (approximately 1,800), and from IEEE journals and conference notices published between 1913-1988. Https:// To download the EN Standards as a full text system, it is only a one-off system You need to be a ,register,. ImageQuestTek is an important visual resource that allows you to access approximately 3 million copyrighted images from a site. IOP Science eBooks Many electronic books, including up-to-date books in all areas of physiology. Idealonline E-Book DatabaseIdealonline E-Book In addition to books on various subjects in the database, there are 190 current books in the Medical Database which are over the market value of 50.000 TL as of 2015 subscription year. İdealonline Periodical Electronic Ver.

Periodicals The resources included in the Electronic Database mainly consist of 281 journals and more than 10.000 articles which are preferred by the academic camian. The project, initiated by İSAM Istanbul Kadı SicilleriİSAM in 2008, will be held in Istanbul 2010 European Capital of Culture 2010 European Cultural Agency And was completed in 2012 and published in forty volumes. Journal Citation Reports (JCR) The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) provides a systematic, objective tool for evaluating the world,s leading journals based on critical and cited data. Is a comprehensive database of statistical information. Journal data from the Web of Science is processed, evaluated, calculated and presented via Journal Citation Reports. History, Language and Literature, Law, Philosophy, Political Science, Population Studies, Psychology, Sociology, Economics, Economics, Finance, Education, Performing Arts, Anthropology, Ecology, American and African Studies, Asian Studies, Biological Sciences, Statistics and Mathematics, Archeology, History of Architecture and Architecture, History of Art and Art, Folklore, Geography, Latin American Studies, Linguistics, Slavic Studies, Water Sciences, Botany and Plant Science, Development and Cell Biology, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Paleontology and Zoology It is a research, learning and sharing environment in Turkey, the subject of which is Türkiye,infoForum Türkiye Kaynakçası or While ,Atomic Info, is found in ,Atomic Info,, generally in siteye (software + content) atifit, we prefer


It is an electronic book platform that can be accessed by analytical search engines for scientific knowledge, which is the academic credibility of engineers and engineering students. More than 560 basic journals, such as Information Science & Technology AbstractsLibrary, Information Science & Technology Abstracts with Full Text (LISTA with Full Text) Nearly 50 magazines and about 125 elite magazines, as well as books, research reports and minutes are indexed.Masters of Architecture has about 7000 images of leading names in architecture and design. MathSciNetMathematics and its publications about criticism, citation and bibliographic information Is the world,s most comprehensive full-text database for medical journals around the world. It is the world,s most comprehensive full-text database of PubMed Derlemes.Medline with Full TextMEDLINE with Full Text. It contains 1,370 magazines indexed in MEDLINE as ,full text,. This comprehensive content means the majority of the most used magazines in the MEDLINE, without any restrictions. Full text coverage MEDLINE with Full Text is a complete research tool for medical literature, dating back to 1965. Merriam-Webster Unabridged The world,s leading Merriam-Webster English dictionary provides the most comprehensive dictionary tools with a comprehensive and easy-to-use platform.

Micromedex HealthcareThomson Reuters

The Health and Science Foundation,s Micromedex Solutions provide clinicians with access to reliable, evidence-based clinical wisdom - so clinicians can make the best treatment decisions and continue to work on the best patient care. Micromedex evidence is the most comprehensive and widely updated medical evidence in the industry. More than 3500 hospitals, poisoning centers, universities, drug information centers and other organizations have gained the trust of more than 30 countries in more than 80 countries. Evidence in the database is that the editorial staff of 90 dedicated to the development of Micromedex is comprehensive and ongoing with thousands of worldwide medical literature, Based research. All this information is synthesized not only to evaluate literature review and quality studies, but also to provide the best treatment recommendations and guidelines.

This extensive review of multiple content means that you can definitely find the answer you need.Newswires EBSCO,s Newswires database is consistently and almost real to the world news of Associated Press, United Press International, PR Newswire, Xinhua, CNN Wire and Business Wire. Ovid Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (LWW) The LWW Total Access database of the Total Access Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (LWW) publishing house offers general themed literature, which may be a reference for every doctor, as well as journals and nursing literature on specialist branches. .

All of the texts in LWW magazines can be searched by keyword. Cardiology, Dermatology, Microbiology, Neurology, Nursing
Neuroscience, Hematology, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Urology, Rheumatology, Geriatrics, Gerontology, and many other fields of medicine, including: Nutrition and Diet, Oncology, Orthopedics, Genetics, Neurosurgery, Virus Science, Health Management, Pathology, Ear Nose and Throat MEDLINE, updated daily and accessed via the OvidSP platform, provides daily access to bibliographic records from more than 3900 journals published in more than 70 countries. Ovid Medline is active by default in Ovid,s full text and open access journals (DOAJ, PubMed Central, Mednow, etc.). Oxford Journals Online provides full-text journals in the fields of biology, law, life sciences, mathematics and physics, medicine, social sciences. It is a bibliographic database indexed by reports presented at First Science conferences. It provides access to information about congresses, symposiums, exhibitions, workshops and meetings in the collection of BLDSC from 1993 until today. It is a comprehensive and comprehensive bibliographic data base of philosopher,s index philosophy and religious philosophy. Since 1940, there are approximately 620 different journals published in 43 languages ​​in different languages.PressReader Newspaper and Magazine Database It provides daily access to newspapers and magazines from 100 countries, 60 dailies, about 3500 daily newspapers and magazine magazines on the same day with full-page original prints, It is a bibliographic data base from which various scientific conferences are indexed from Proceedings of 1993. It is produced based on BLDSC,s collection as it is in PaperFirst. It is a psychology database providing full text access to 85 psychology magazines published by PsycArticlesAmerican Psychological Association. Human Psychology, Social Psychology, Educational Psychology etc. It includes books, book chapters, theses and technical reports with over two million citations and abstracts of the articles in the fields.

The Roloal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a collection of research articles on analytical chemistry, biomolecular chemistry, biometrics, biotechnology, catalysts, chemical biology, crystal engineering, Magazines covering all branches of chemistry such as green chemistry, inorganic chemistry, material science, medical sciences, nanobiology, natural products, organic chemistry, photochemical sciences, photo-biological sciences, physico-chemistry, polymer sciences, soft materials, and systems biology Science and technology, biology, genetics and molecular biology, business administration, management and accounting, chemical engineering, chemistry, computer science, finance, energy, engineering, medicine and dentistry, neuroscience, environmental sciences, Is a database covering topics such as mathematics, immunology, microbiology, material science, nursing and health professions, physics, environmental engineering, geology, natural science, veterinary science and medicine, pharmacy, toxicology and medicine, psychology. And 63 patent information. More than 67 million organic and inorganic matter information, more than 63 million biological sequences, more than 56 million chemical reactions are included in the scope of the scan provides the opportunity to search the literature and the most comprehensive of the web resources of the abstract and reference is the reference database. It is designed to find the information scientists need. Scopus is a fast, easy-to-understand and easy-to-understand support for the literature research process. Scopus database covers: 15,000 titles More than 12,850 academic journals from 4,000 different publishers, including 535 public access journals, 27 million abstrakt600 commercial publications, 750 conference proceedings245 Millions of references added to all abstraktions250 million results from scientific web pages13 million patents from these 4 most important patent officesThe links that provide problem-free access to full text articles and other library resourcesOur most interesting finds with creative tools to provide a glimpse of your views The number of alerts that will keep you up-to-date on new articles in harmony with the most useful article or the number of articles that are most useful to you will be increased by more than 80 decades and the number of articles scanned will increase gradually. In the case of different software belonging to the same author with the same author as Professor Profiling, And the definitive solution Thanks to the Citation Tracker and author and article analysis, who does what is best, where the best work is published, the best papers to read, empowers the literature research on topics such as which topics gain popularity and interest.SpringerLink is a science, physics, astronomy, engineering, Environmental sciences, mathematics, computers, earth sciences, medicine, economics, law, etc.

Full-text access. Springer E-Book Springer E Book Collection serves in all subject areas of the year 2013/2014/2015. Sport Discus with Full Text SPORTDiscus with Full Text The world,s most comprehensive sports and sport medicine magazines are full text sources and provide over 350 full texts indexed in SPORTDiscus. This authoritative file contains the full text of the most used magazines in the SPORTDiscus directory without any restrictions. SPORTDiscus with Full Text dating back to 1985 is an important research tool in all areas of sports and sport medicine literature. Taylor & Francis More than 1,500 journals in Physics, Mathematics, Engineering,

Technology, Pharmacy, Biology, Psychology, Education, Business, Chemistry and Humanities are available in full text from 1997. The Encyclopedia of Islamic Dhs Islamic Studies began in 1983 and its first skin was published in 1988 Turkish Religious Foundation (TDV) Islamic Encyclopaedia (DİA) is a totally copyrighted work and the original list of articles covering Islamic sciences, history, geography, culture and civilization of Islamic countries. This list, which is scanned by the relevant science boards from about 500 basic sources, consists of 16,855 items. The Reference Center The Reference Center contains the indexing and summarizing of 280 journals dedicated to supporting professional educators with the most famous educator and managerial journals. The Economist Historical ArchiveThe Economist is the weekly news, international relations and economics magazine that owns the London-based ,The Economist Newspaper Ltd.,. Since its foundation in September 1843, it has been published continuously. The Economist Historical Archive covers the years 1843 to 2009. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is an electronic resource that provides information that is understandable and clinically useful in the context of clinical experience. TurkompTÜBİTAK- MAM The National Food Composition Database (TURKOMP) has been established within the scope of the project carried out by the Food Institute with the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. There are approximately 63.000 data for 100 components of more than 500 foods in Tukkomp. You can reach the energy and nutritional values ​​of the foods through the database and you can make your searches according to ,food,, ,component, and ,nutrition,. According to the components, the food is already azaTürkiye Citation IndexingTraders can provide the latest articles published in recent years in health sciences magazines The database contains the full texts and abstracts of recent articles published in the Turkish health sciences journals in order to increase the citation numbers of the magazines.

ULAKBİM National Databases ULAKBİM National Data Bases (UVT) are created by ULAKBİM in international standards in order to enable researchers to access their scientific content in electronic environment Databases; Science, engineering, social sciences and law. Unesco Digital LibraryUNESCO Digital LibraryUpToDateUpToDate is a comprehensive medical information resource based on evidence. UpToDate; Is designed to help doctors get access to what they need most easily with easy-to-use summary information. Subject examinations are written specifically for doctors by doctors. The UpToDate content includes a comprehensive summary and all referenced information.

Access through the UpToDate is conducted through intensive reviews and recommendations to ensure accuracy and reliability. Web of ScienceWeb of Science; Through the ISI Web of Knowledge platform, ISI Citation Indexes provides access via the internet. The ISI Citation Indexes (ISI Citation Indexes) provide research knowledge in a multidisciplinary, high-quality, world-leading science, social sciences and arts and human sciences publications. Selects and indexes the best publications in all fields of science, social sciences, arts and human sciences. Many different kinds of documents contained in these publications are added to the database. This means you can search for a specific letter, edit, essay, quotation, text editor, or promotional post in a post. Records; Includes references to ATIF references, titles, authors, keywords, abstracts and other document details. Although the Web of Science is a bibliographic database, it provides access to the full text of thousands of publications via a bridge. The full text access is dependent on our institution subscribing to electronic publications. The Web of Science includes three separate databases that can be scanned independently of one another. 1) Science Citation Index Expanded2) Social Sciences Citation Index3) Arts & Humanities Citation IndexWiley Online Library Provides full text access to computer, environmental science, education, physics, law, statistics, business, chemistry, mathematics, material science, engineering, psychology, social sciences, medicine and health sciences.Willey Online Library Computer, It provides full-text access in the fields of physics, law, statistics, business, chemistry, mathematics, material science, engineering, psychology, social sciences, medicine and health sciences. Visible Body 3D Anatomy Atlas is the only complete and mobile- Is a source of systematic access to thousands of anatomical images and structures. World Almanac is a database of life, art, computer, economics, science and technology, sports, population statistics and other information. Published annually from 1998 onwards; The World Almanac and the Book of Facts, The World Almanac of the U.S.A.,

The World Almanac of U.S. Politics, The World Almanac for Kids, The World Almanac Knowledge Source. The World Cat DissertationsOCLC member has theses that he has registered the libraries. There are over 8 million catalogs registered. World Cat 400 books, videos, audio recordings, maps, notes, manuscripts, archives, etc. in the collections of OCLC member libraries in the world. And bibliographic access to Cooperative Onine Resources Cataloque (CORC) records. Over 179 million records


Database architecture consists of three levels, external, conceptual and internal. Clearly separating the three levels was a major feature of the relational database model that dominates 21st century databases.[2]

The external level defines how users understand the organization of the data. A single database can have any number of views at the external level. The internal level defines how the data is physically stored and processed by the computing system. Internal architecture is concerned with cost, performance, scalability and other operational matters. The conceptual is a level of indirection between internal and external. It provides a common view of the database that is uncomplicated by details of how the data is stored or managed, and that can unify the various external views into a coherent whole.[2]
Database management systems
Main article: Database management system

A database management system (DBMS) consists of software that operates databases, providing storage, access, security, backup and other facilities. Database management systems can be categorized according to the database model that they support, such as relational or XML, the type(s) of computer they support, such as a server cluster or a mobile phone, the query language(s) that access the database, such as SQL or XQuery, performance trade-offs, such as maximum scale or maximum speed or others. Some DBMS cover more than one entry in these categories, e.g., supporting multiple query languages. Examples of some commonly used DBMS are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQL Server, FileMaker,Oracle,Sybase, dBASE, Clipper,FoxPro etc. Almost every database software comes with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver that allows the database to integrate with other databases.
Components of DBMS

Most DBMS as of 2009[update] implement a relational model.[3] Other DBMS systems, such as Object DBMS, offer specific features for more specialized requirements. Their components are similar, but not identical.
RDBMS components

* Sublanguages— Relational DBMS (RDBMS) include Data Definition Language (DDL) for defining the structure of the database, Data Control Language (DCL) for defining security/access controls, and Data Manipulation Language (DML) for querying and updating data.
* Interface drivers—These drivers are code libraries that provide methods to prepare statements, execute statements, fetch results, etc. Examples include ODBC, JDBC, MySQL/PHP, FireBird/Python.
* SQL engine—This component interprets and executes the DDL, DCL, and DML statements. It includes three major components (compiler, optimizer, and executor).
* Transaction engine—Ensures that multiple SQL statements either succeed or fail as a group, according to application dictates.
* Relational engine—Relational objects such as Table, Index, and Referential integrity constraints are implemented in this component.
* Storage engine—This component stores and retrieves data from secondary storage, as well as managing transaction commit and rollback, backup and recovery, etc.

ODBMS components

Object DBMS (ODBMS) has transaction and storage components that are analogous to those in an RDBMS. Some DBMS handle DDL, DML and update tasks differently. Instead of using sublanguages, they provide APIs for these purposes. They typically include a sublanguage and accompanying engine for processing queries with interpretive statements analogous to but not the same as SQL. Example object query languages are OQL, LINQ, JDOQL, JPAQL and others. The query engine returns collections of objects instead of relational rows.
This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2010)
Operational database

These databases store detailed data about the operations of an organization. They are typically organized by subject matter, process relatively high volumes of updates using transactions. Essentially every major organization on earth uses such databases. Examples include customer databases that record contact, credit, and demographic information about a business' customers, personnel databases that hold information such as salary, benefits, skills data about employees, Enterprise resource planning that record details about product components, parts inventory, and financial databases that keep track of the organization's money, accounting and financial dealings.
Data warehouse

Data warehouses archive modern data from operational databases and often from external sources such as market research firms. Often operational data undergoes transformation on its way into the warehouse, getting summarized, anonymized, reclassified, etc. The warehouse becomes the central source of data for use by managers and other end-users who may not have access to operational data. For example, sales data might be aggregated to weekly totals and converted from internal product codes to use UPC codes so that it can be compared with ACNielsen data.Some basic and essential components of data warehousing include retrieving and analyzing data, transforming,loading and managing data so as to make it available for further use.
Analytical database

Analysts may do their work directly against, a data warehouse, or create a separate analytic database for Online Analytical Processing. For example, a company might extract sales records for analyzing the effectiveness of advertising and other sales promotions at an aggregate level.
Distributed database

These are databases of local work-groups and departments at regional offices, branch offices, manufacturing plants and other work sites. These databases can include segments of both common operational and common user databases, as well as data generated and used only at a user’s own site.
End-user database

These databases consist of data developed by individual end-users. Examples of these are collections of documents in spreadsheets, word processing and downloaded files, even managing their personal baseball card collection.
External database

These databases contain data collected for use across multiple organizations, either freely or via subscription. The Internet Movie Database is one example.
Hypermedia databases

The Worldwide web can be thought of as a database, albeit one spread across millions of independent computing systems. Web browsers "process" this data one page at a time, while web crawlers and other software provide the equivalent of database indexes to support search and other activities.
Main article: Database model
Post-relational database models

Products offering a more general data model than the relational model are sometimes classified as post-relational.[4] Alternate terms include "hybrid database", "Object-enhanced RDBMS" and others. The data model in such products incorporates relations but is not constrained by E.F. Codd's Information Principle, which requires that

all information in the database must be cast explicitly in terms of values in relations and in no other way[5]

Some of these extensions to the relational model integrate concepts from technologies that pre-date the relational model. For example, they allow representation of a directed graph with trees on the nodes.

Some post-relational products extend relational systems with non-relational features. Others arrived in much the same place by adding relational features to pre-relational systems. Paradoxically, this allows products that are historically pre-relational, such as PICK and MUMPS, to make a plausible claim to be post-relational.
Object database models
Main article: Object database

In recent years[update], the object-oriented paradigm has been applied in areas such as engineering and spatial databases, telecommunications and in various scientific domains. The conglomeration of object oriented programming and database technology led to this new kind of database. These databases attempt to bring the database world and the application-programming world closer together, in particular by ensuring that the database uses the same type system as the application program. This aims to avoid the overhead (sometimes referred to as the impedance mismatch) of converting information between its representation in the database (for example as rows in tables) and its representation in the application program (typically as objects). At the same time, object databases attempt to introduce key ideas of object programming, such as encapsulation and polymorphism, into the world of databases.

A variety of these ways have been tried[by whom?] for storing objects in a database. Some products have approached the problem from the application-programming side, by making the objects manipulated by the program persistent. This also typically requires the addition of some kind of query language, since conventional programming languages do not provide language-level functionality for finding objects based on their information content. Others[which?] have attacked the problem from the database end, by defining an object-oriented data model for the database, and defining a database programming language that allows full programming capabilities as well as traditional query facilities.
Storage structures
Main article: Database storage structures

Databases may store relational tables/indexes in memory or on hard disk in one of many forms:

* ordered/unordered flat files
* heaps
* hash buckets
* logically-blocked files
* B+ trees

The most commonly used[citation needed] are B+ trees and ISAM.

Object databases use a range of storage mechanisms. Some use virtual memory-mapped files to make the native language (C++, Java etc.) objects persistent. This can be highly efficient but it can make multi-language access more difficult. Others disassemble objects into fixed- and varying-length components that are then clustered in fixed sized blocks on disk and reassembled into the appropriate format on either the client or server address space. Another popular technique involves storing the objects in tuples (much like a relational database) which the database server then reassembles into objects for the client.[citation needed]

Other techniques include clustering by category (such as grouping data by month, or location), storing pre-computed query results, known as materialized views, partitioning data by range (e.g., a data range) or by hash.

Memory management and storage topology can be important design choices for database designers as well. Just as normalization is used to reduce storage requirements and improve database designs, conversely denormalization is often used to reduce join complexity and reduce query execution time.[6]
Main article: Index (database)

Indexing is a technique for improving database performance. The many types of index share the common property that they eliminate the need to examine every entry when running a query. In large databases, this can reduce query time/cost by orders of magnitude. The simplest form of index is a sorted list of values that can be searched using a binary search with an adjacent reference to the location of the entry, analogous to the index in the back of a book. The same data can have multiple indexes (an employee database could be indexed by last name and hire date.)

Indexes affect performance, but not results. Database designers can add or remove indexes without changing application logic, reducing maintenance costs as the database grows and database usage evolves.

Given a particular query, the DBMS' query optimizer is responsible for devising the most efficient strategy for finding matching data. The optimizer decides which index or indexes to use, how to combine data from different parts of the database, how to provide data in the order requested, etc.

Indexes can speed up data access, but they consume space in the database, and must be updated each time the data is altered. Indexes therefore can speed data access but slow data maintenance. These two properties determine whether a given index is worth the cost.
Main article: Database transaction
This section may stray from the topic of the article into the topic of another article, Database management system. Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. (November 2010)

As every software system, a DBMS operates in a faulty computing environment and prone to failures of many kinds. A failure can corrupt the respective database unless special measures are taken to prevent this. A DBMS achieves certain levels of fault tolerance by encapsulating in database transactions units of work (executed programs) performed upon the respective database.
The ACID rules
Main article: ACID

Most DBMS provide some form of support for transactions, which allow multiple data items to be updated in a consistent fashion, such that updates that are part of a transaction succeed or fail in unison. The so-called ACID rules, summarized here, characterize this behavior:

* Atomicity: Either all the data changes in a transaction must happen, or none of them. The transaction must be completed, or else it must be undone (rolled back).
* Consistency: Every transaction must preserve the declared consistency rules for the database.
* Isolation: Two concurrent transactions cannot interfere with one another. Intermediate results within one transaction must remain invisible to other transactions. The most extreme form of isolation is serializability, meaning that transactions that take place concurrently could instead be performed in some series, without affecting the ultimate result.
* Durability: Completed transactions cannot be aborted later or their results discarded. They must persist through (for instance) DBMS restarts.

In practice, many DBMSs allow the selective relaxation of these rules to balance perfect behavior with optimum performance.
Concurrency control and locking
Main article: Concurrency control

Concurrency control is essential for the correctness of transactions executed concurrently in a DBMS, which is the common execution mode for performance reasons. The main concern and goal of concurrency control is isolation.

Isolation refers to the ability of one transaction to see the results of other transactions. Greater isolation typically reduces performance and/or concurrency, leading DBMSs to provide administrative options to reduce isolation. For example, in a database that analyzes trends rather than looking at low-level detail, increased performance might justify allowing readers to see uncommitted changes ("dirty reads".)

A common way to achieve isolation is by locking. When a transaction modifies a resource, the DBMS stops other transactions from also modifying it, typically by locking it. Locks also provide one method of ensuring that data does not change while a transaction is reading it or even that it doesn't change until a transaction that once read it has completed.
Lock types

Locks can be shared[7] or exclusive, and can lock out readers and/or writers. Locks can be created implicitly by the DBMS when a transaction performs an operation, or explicitly at the transaction's request.

Shared locks allow multiple transactions to lock the same resource. The lock persists until all such transactions complete. Exclusive locks are held by a single transaction and prevent other transactions from locking the same resource.

Read locks are usually shared, and prevent other transactions from modifying the resource. Write locks are exclusive, and prevent other transactions from modifying the resource. On some systems, write locks also prevent other transactions from reading the resource.

The DBMS implicitly locks data when it is updated, and may also do so when it is read. Transactions explicitly lock data to ensure that they can complete without complications. Explicit locks may be useful for some administrative tasks.[8][9]

Locking can significantly affect database performance, especially with large and complex transactions in highly concurrent environments.
Lock granularity

Locks can be coarse, covering an entire database, fine-grained, covering a single data item, or intermediate covering a collection of data such as all the rows in a RDBMS table.

Deadlocks occur when two transactions each require data that the other has already locked exclusively. Deadlock detection is performed by the DBMS, which then aborts one of the transactions and allows the other to complete.
Main article: Database replication

Database replication involves maintaining multiple copies of a database on different computers, to allow more users to access it, or to allow a secondary site to immediately take over if the primary site stops working. Some DBMS piggyback replication on top of their transaction logging facility, applying the primary's log to the secondary in near real-time. Database clustering is a related concept for handling larger databases and user communities by employing a cluster of multiple computers to host a single database that can use replication as part of its approach.[10][11]
Main article: Database security

Database security denotes the system, processes, and procedures that protect a database from unauthorized activity.

DBMSs usually enforce security through access control, auditing, and encryption:

* Access control manages who can connect to the database via authentication and what they can do via authorization.
* Auditing records information about database activity: who, what, when, and possibly where.
* Encryption protects data at the lowest possible level by storing and possibly transmitting data in an unreadable form. The DBMS encrypts data when it is added to the database and decrypts it when returning query results. This process can occur on the client side of a network connection to prevent unauthorized access at the point of use.


Law and regulation governs the release of information from some databases, protecting medical history, driving records, telephone logs, etc.

In the United Kingdom, database privacy regulation falls under the Office of the Information Commissioner. Organizations based in the United Kingdom and holding personal data in digital format such as databases must register with the Office.[12]
See also

* Comparison of relational database management systems
* Comparison of database tools
* Data hierarchy
* Database design
* Database theory
* Database-centric architecture
* Datastructure
* Document-oriented database
* Government database
* In-memory database
* Real time database
* Web database

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